What is state failure? See my conceptualisation of state failure on the right flank below.

Thursday, June 7, 2007


Having just read Rebecca Linder's work (pdf), Wikis, Webs, and Networks - Creating Connections for Conflict-Prone Settings, from 2006, on how cooperation between the various actors of state-building could (and very much should) be improved, I took her arguments for an increasing use of 'wiki'-type resources (cross-editable knowledge-bases to put it one way) seriously, and I decided to add some pieces of information on leishmaniasis I have learned recently to Wikipedia's article on the subject. My notes there can be improved, and more notes can be added to them, so I just encourage people like Ms Clark whose comment I reflected on yesterday, to use the opportunity to let key facts be available to a wider audience. A link to the www.leishmaniasis.us/Leish.html site, which I have also referred to yesterday, might be added to the list of external links there as well. This could all be part of developing these wiki-type resources, where e.g. 'free revealing', very important in turbulent, complex environments (THINK OF AFGHANISTAN!!!), can work unhindered, though of course Ms Linder at the CSIS post-war reconstruction project meant what she wrote rather as a need to rely more on websites with more focused, specialised content. A couple of blogs and blog networks may have been included on her list of key websites, actually, I would say.
Anyway, here are the two paragraphs I have inserted into the Wikipedia article on leishmaniasis, into the section on 'Geography and epidemiology'.
"In fact, U.S. troops have experienced leishmaniasis cases in the Middle East already previously to the 2003 invasion, during the time of the previous Gulf conflict, when a large number of soldiers were stationed in Saudi Arabia. Of the 32 cases that were recorded by the U.S. military for that period (1990-1991), 20 were cutaneous, and 12 of the more severe visceral type [www.pdhealth.mil/downloads/Leishmaniasis_exsu_16Mar042.pdf]."
"Within Afghanistan, in particular Kabul is a town where leishmaniasis occurs commonly - partly to do with bad sanitation and waste left uncollected in streets, allowing parasite-spreading sand flies an environment they find favorable. See (here) and (here). In Kabul the number of people infected is estimated at at least 200,000, and in three other towns (Herat, Kandahar and Mazar-i-Sharif) there may be about 70,000 more, according to WHO figures from 2002 cited e.g. here."

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